Techniques for bandaging certain body parts with a bandage and a triangular scarf
Bandaging is a very important medical-technical measure in providing first aid for open and closed injuries.
The basic material used in bandaging includes: bandage, gauze, cotton wool and cloth pendants. It must be sterile, light, soft and made of a material that absorbs secretions from wounds, blood and pus.
The most common types of windings of the helical path are:
- Circular – used to start bending on the trunk and free parts of the upper and lower limbs, and the windings completely cover the previous ones
- Snake-shaped – tighten the parts of the bend, while the coil does not touch the previous one;
- Spiral – serves for the final strengthening and bending of the extremities;
- Turtle bandage – starts with a circular bandage, and the next coils are placed alternately above and below the bandage (elbow, knee and foot) ;
- “Eight” bandage – the strips are crossed in the shape of the number 8 and placed on the joints and parts of the body: shoulder, fist, hip, foot.
The basic rules of bandaging are:
The bandage is always unwound with the thumb so that it does not fall out;
Bandage placement begins and ends outside the wound;
All edges of the gauze must be covered;
If, due to heavy bleeding, blood subsequently begins to leak through the gauze; they place the shadow layers of gauze and bandages on the already existing ones, without removing the previously placed bandages.
A gauze (tupfer) is usually applied to the wound, folded several times, and a post-war band over it. If there is no wound, calico bandages are placed made of thick cotton fabric, which is cut into strips of different widths and lengths, and rolled into a roll.
The most common types of bandages for head injuries are: Hippocratic hat, bandage for one eye, bandage for both eyes and bandage for nose and chin (“slingshot”).
The Hippocratic cap (bandage around the head) consists of two bandages 10 cm wide which serve to stop bleeding and fasten the skin on the head in case of wounds and burns.
Hippocratic Hat Technique:
- The injured person is seated facing the rescuer who takes two bandages with two “heads” in his left and right hands,
- The bandage is placed on the back of the injured person’s head and both “heads” of the bandage are moved towards the frontal part of the skull;
- The bandage is folded and pulled towards the back of the head;
- the “heads” of the bend are then moved: the left “head” to the right hand, the right “head” to the left hand;
- The bandage in the left hand is moved over the crown to the front of the head, and the bandage in the right hand is wrapped around the head towards the forehead;
- The bandage in the forehead area is folded. The bandage in the right hand moves over the parietal part of the head towards the nape of the neck (overlapping half of the previous layer), and the bandage in the left hand wraps around the head towards the front part;
- The “heads” of the bandage are moved from the right hand to the left, and vice versa;
- Wrap all the time until the top of the head is covered;
- The bandage in the left hand is fastened in the area of the nape of the neck, and the bandage in the right hand is made by fastening it around the head. The bandage in the area of the nape of the neck is folded and “leads” with both hands towards the frontal part of the head;
- Finally, tie the bandage to the knot and cut off the excess.
One eye bandage (monocular bandage) is used to attach sterile material in the eye area, in case of injury and illness.
Materials needed: bandage, cotton and gauze insert, patch, pins, scissors.
Before applying the bandage, cover the damaged eye with a protective pad made of cotton wool and gauze. There are two schemes for placing this connection, depending on the direction of the oblique circular threads that directly close the eye: from top to bottom and from bottom to top.
Specifics when placing oblique circular threads on one eye from top to bottom: placing a bandage on the left eye is better done from right to left (compared to the injured / sick person), and on the right eye – from left to right, while when placing oblique threads from bottom to top – vice versa (placing the bandage on the left eye should be done from left to right, and the right eye – from right to left).
The technique of putting a bandage on one eye also includes certain rules:
Make a circular fixing coil around the head over the frontal and occipital protrusions, starting from the side of the affected eye;
Attaching the bandage coil is placed around the head, gripping the forehead and occipital protrusion; from behind, the bandage is lowered and “leads” upwards under the earlobe on the side of the injured / diseased eye over the cheek, closing the diseased eye with this coil;
The oblique layer of the bandage is fixed by fastening the bandage winding around the frontal and occipital regions of the head. Then make an alternating oblique coil (which slightly overlaps the previous oblique thread) and a circular thread around the head;
By repeating these circular coils around the head and over the eye area in the required number of passes, the diseased / injured eye is covered.
Properly placed bandage on the eye must fit firmly so as not to press on the eyeball. In addition, care should be taken to keep the ears free.
The bandage for both eyes (binocular) is used to fasten sterile material in the area of the eyes during their injury and illness. Instructions for applying bandages to both eyes: fix the bandage material in the area of the eyes in case of their injury or illness.
Materials needed: bandage, cotton and gauze insulation pads, scissors and patch. The bandage technique for both eyes requires the following procedure:
- Before applying the bandage, the injured person should be placed in a sitting position with the rescuer facing. Pads of cotton wool and gauze were placed over her eyes;
- Applying a bandage to both eyes begins with a circular fastening coil around the head over the frontal and occipital protrusions. The bandage is placed from left to right;
- In the area of the nape of the neck, the bandage is lowered obliquely downwards;
- The bandage is then placed under the earlobe, it is directed obliquely upwards on the right cheek over the face, closing the right eye and forehead;
- When a circular coil is made around the head, the bandage is directed further across the face obliquely downwards, over the left eye below the earlobe, and goes towards the nape of the neck;
- The bandage coils are placed on top of each other until the eye sockets are completely covered;
- Finally, the bend is secured with a circular horizontal coil. When leaving the bandage, the windings over the ear shells are omitted.
The “slingshot” for the nose, lips and chin is made so that the width of the bandage is sufficient to cover the entire injured area, and the length should be about one and a half by the circumference of the head.
At both ends, the bandage was split lengthwise into two parts, and the middle was left intact to cover the injured nose or chin. Sterile gauze is first placed on the wound, and then an uncut part of the bandage is placed on it, the ends of which intersect and connect from behind.