THE ROLE OF THE SAVIOR IN PROVIDING FIRST AID
A rescuer is a person who provides first aid with the aim of rescuing a life-threatening injured person. He should know the rules and methods of first aid and be ready to apply that knowledge quickly in the most unexpected situations, because in most cases the injured die in the period between the injury (ie accident) and the arrival of the ambulance. The rescuer takes care of those whose lives, individual organs or parts of the body are directly endangered due to illness or injury, or those whose lives would be wasted in a short time.
When providing first aid, the rescuer should not panic:
> recognize the degree of wear of the injured / sick;
> protect yourself and assess the danger to the injured / sick person, as well as others present;
> calmly controls his reactions and the whole situation;
> explains to the victim what he is doing;
> carefully and decisively checks the condition of the victim (whether everything is flat, whether his airways are passable and whether he is breathing);
> uses protective equipment (gloves, work clothes, masks, goggles, capes, etc.);
> encourages injured / sick people (especially children) and does not leave them until the arrival of the Emergency Medical Service;
> Provide safe and fast transport to the nearest health facility as soon as possible (unless specially trained emergency medical personnel arrive), where medical care will be provided to the casualty.
The rescuer should not take action if there is a real danger of wasting his own life. Whenever possible, it is important to avoid direct contact with the blood of an injured or suddenly ill person due to the risk of infection.
LINKS IN THE RESCUE CHAIN
“Rescue chain links” are a set of emergency measures and actions of several people with the aim of saving the life of an injured / sick person. They include the following elements:
> taking urgent measures to save lives immediately;
> call an ambulance:
> providing first aid (eg resuscitation – cardiac massage and artificial respiration) in the shortest possible time during the primary examination;
> intervention of the Emergency Medical Service;
> hospital care.
The person providing first aid starts the life-saving chain. It takes care of the injured / sick and significantly affects the success of the measures taken in the first three “links in the rescue chain”. you should be asked to confirm whether the call has been received and whether the ambulance will arrive soon.
As soon as he calls an ambulance, it is necessary for the rescuer to secure the place of the accident (eg put out a small fire, unplug the stove. Remove objects that can cause injuries), mark it (eg with a turning triangle, if the accident happened in traffic) and protect the casualty from possible new injury. Professional professional services (firefighters, police) should be informed about the perceived danger of larger dimensions (larger fire, existence of poisonous and easily flammable substances, damaged transmission line, etc.).
The primary examination is performed immediately after approaching the injured patient and includes a quick visual and palpatory examination: assessment of consciousness, checking breathing and circulation (pulse), and emergency measures (eg resuscitation, stopping external bleeding, etc.).
Secondary examination is performed after providing immediate first aid measures, ie primary examination, and includes collecting data on accident, sudden illness, or injured person, checking his vital signs and detailed examination of his whole body by touching the rescuer’s hands (looking for signs of illness or injury). ) and asking additional questions.
The rescuer should adhere to two rules: “Do no harm to an injured or suddenly ill person” and “Do not do more than expected”. If the arrival of the ambulance is not possible for some reason, it is necessary to organize appropriate safe transportation to the nearest health institution.
SAVIOR ACTION PLAN - ACCIDENT PROCEDURES
The beginning of providing first aid is preceded by making quick, and safe for the rescuer, decisions that determine the success and preservation of the life of the injured person.
Identifying the need and deciding on first aid. The rescuer should recognize the existence of a sudden illness or injury and make a decision to provide first aid. It is important to be aware that, despite the best efforts and assistance, an injured person may be subject to injury or illness.
Assessment of the place of the accident and the degree of endangerment. The rescuer should make sure that nothing is endangering him, determine that the approach to the place of the accident is safe and find out what happened (approaching the victim, he should think about the plan of actions and necessary funds, eg from the first aid kit) . At the same time, the rescuer should ask the victims to respond and find out who else can help.
Triage includes determining the injuries and condition of the sick / injured person according to the order of urgency, and classifying several injured persons according to the nature of the injuries. After triage, the first line of emergency refers to conditions that directly endanger breathing and circulation.
Invoking the Hymn of Medical Aid. If the rescuer is not allowed to leave the victim alone for more than 30 seconds, he should ask someone from the environment to call an ambulance. When calling important telephone numbers to report an accident, it is necessary for the person to follow the following instructions:
> introduce yourself and clearly state your name and surname;
> state as precisely as possible the place where the victim is (if he does not know, look around or ask someone), if he is in the apartment, give the address, floor and surname written on the intercom and door; describe what happened (briefly describe the type and severity of the accident, whether there is still a danger of fire, water, gas, toxic substances, etc.);
> inform those who need help (number of injured, their gender and approximate age, whether they are in danger of death);
> state the level of expertise of the rescuer who provides first aid;
> leave the landline or mobile phone number from which he / she calls the Emergency Medical Service so that he / she can be contacted in case of difficulties in finding the address.